Biological Species in Pleurotus
ISG XIV. Pleurotus australis Cooke and Massee in Cooke
1886. Grevillea 15: 93.. 1886. Grevillea 15: 93.
Typification: AUSTRALIA, Lake Bonney (viz. Segedin et al, 1995).
Genetic isolation history: Segedin et al. (1995) reported that P. australis was incompatible with P. "opuntiae" (probably P. djamor); P. ostreatus (isolates from USA), and P. purpureo-olivaceus. Petersen (unpubl. data) paired monokaryon isolates of NZFRI 3240 against the entire battery of tester strains listed here. Universal interincompatibility was observed, and it was concluded that P. australis was a discrete biological species. Zervakis (1998), however, found a low level of compatibility between P. australis and some strains of P. cystidiosus.
Self-cross: NEW ZEALAND, Point St. Raglan, 20.III.88, coll. I. Hood, det. B. Segedin, NZFRI 3240M, SBIs from in vitro fruited basidiomata. Tester strains: NZFRI 3240M: 3 = A1B1; NZFRI 3240M:4 = A2B2; NZFRI 3240M:1 = A1B2; NZFRI 3240M:6 = A2B1 (see Petersen et al., 1997).
Basidiome development: see Petersen et al., 1997.
Anamorphic state: Basidiomatal primordia are covered with a turf of simple conidiophores and black conidia, initially dry but becoming slimy. No further development of asexual spores occurs as basidiome expands, so that by basidiome maturity, only a small spot of depauperate anamorph remains on the pileus surface. No differentiated conidiophores are produced. The anamorph state is nameless. See Petersen et al.,1997.
Phylogenetic reconstruction: Petersen et al. (1997) furnished a limited phylogenetic reconstruction based on ITS sequences placing P. australis in relation to P. opuntiae, P. abieticola, P. ostreatus, P. pulmonarius, and P. purpureo-olivaceus. Pleurotus purpureo-olivaceus and P. australis formed a clade opposed by a clade comprising the other taxa. Pleurotus purpureo-olivaceus produces synnematous conidiophores with black, slimy conidia, found on basidiome stipe surfaces and independent of basidiomata in or on the substrate (see Segedin et al., 1995)..